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  Film Tech/Lens 에 해당되는 글 13
2012.11.24   smc PENTAX- M 1:1.4 50mm 발삼 제거 방법 
2012.11.12   포그,발삼, 팬탁스 SMC PENTAX M 2.8 40, 발삼 렌즈 수리 
2012.10.31   Carl Zeiss Lens Design 
2012.10.28   란탄/란타늄 (Lanthanum)렌즈에 대한 정보 
2012.10.27   Industar-61 L/Z 50mm f2.8의 별보케 효과 실험촬영 
2012.10.27   Industar-61 L/Z 50mm f2.8 별보케 렌즈 
2012.10.20   Zeiss Ikon Contax Rangefinder Lenses 
2012.10.20   Nikkor-O f=2.1cm 1:4 
2012.10.18   Contax and Nikon Rangefinder Bayonet Mount Lenses 
2012.10.06   Distagon, Tessar, Planar, Sonnar 간략특징 
  smc PENTAX- M 1:1.4 50mm 발삼 제거 방법  +   [Film Tech/Lens]   |  2012.11.24 21:25

smc PENTAX- M 1:1.4 50mm 발삼제거

출처 : http://tomshome.sakura.ne.jp/others/LENS/M5014.html

일본 사이트의 내용을 번역기로 돌려 올리는 것이어서 글이 적절하지 않은 부분이 많다.

일본어를 잘 아신다면 해당 사이트를 직접 방문해 보시길....

1. 렌즈 사양
렌즈 구성:6군7매
최단 촬영 거리:0.45m
치수:최대 직경 63 mm×전체 길이 37 mm
중량:240g
발매 시가격:29,400엔
발매 년월 1976년 

분해 조립 난이도 10 단계 평가 : 5

 

2. 발삼 제거기

  • (1)장식판은 홈 센터로 의자의 다리 등에 하는 고무다리를 꽉 누르면서 제외하는 것이 보통이지만, 일부러 사는 것도 아까운 경우, 조금 소찢는데 비닐 테이프 대용하는 것이 좋다.
    (대물렌즈의 둥근 장식판의 제거는 의자다리 등에 붙이는 고무풋으로 하는것이 일반적이나, 렌즈 구경에 맞는것을
      구하는 것도 쉽지 않아서 그 대용으로 전기테이프를 대용하는 것이 좋다.)


  • (2)적당하게 감아 풀어 필터범위에 빠지는 것처럼 하고 그리그리와 꽉 누르면, 테이프의 단면으로부터 하미 낸 점착제가 장식해 판에 쳐 첨부구
    (전기테잎을 적당하게 풀어서 필터내부에 빠지는 정도의 구경으로 만들어서 꽉 누르면, 테이프의 외격 단면이
    렌즈장식판널에 들어가게 된다. ...?? 맞나??)



  • (3)다음은 느슨하게할 뿐(만큼), 고무다리보다 간단하게 잡힌다.하지만, 이 방법의 결점은 점착제가 장식해 판에 남는 일일까(^^□
    (책상다리에 사용하는 고무풋보다 간단하게 잡아서 빼주지만, 이방법의 결점은 테잎 접착제가 장식판에 붙어서
    남는 점이다. )

 

  • (4)필터범위는 이 나사를3책 느슨하게한다고 잡힌다.
    (필터부위는 이 작은 나사 3개를 제거하면 된다.???)


  • (5)전옥군을 게눈레치로 제외한다.
    (대물렌즈를 게눈모양 렌찌로 제거한다. 핀셋으로도 가능함)


  • (6)이 나사를 느슨하게하면 핀트링이 빗나간다.핀트링을 제외하면 무한원의 조정이 필요하게 되므로 각오를 결정하는 일!
    (이 나사를 풀면 핀을 맞추는 핀링이 틀어진다. 핀트링을 풀면 무한대 핀조정이 필요하므로 각오를 해야함.
    여기에서는 풀 필요가 없으므로 풀지말자)


  • (7)핀트링이 밖상태. 중앙으로 보이는 것이 조임 유닛 고정용 나사.
    (핀트링의 옆면 바깥부분 사진, 여기서 중앙에 보이는 나사가 줌조정 고정나사)

 

  • (8)조리개는 유닛이 되어 있으므로 안심하고 제외할 수 있다.
    (조리개는 하나의 유닛으로 되어있으므로 조리개는 안심하게 분해해도 된다)


  • (9)이 게째를 빗나가게 하면 나카타마군이 빗나간다, 다만, 후옥군을 제외하고 뒤에서 누르지 않으면 빗나가지 않을지도.
    (게째(??)를 분해하면 나카다마군(??1군으로 구성된 대물렌즈를 말하나??)이 분해가 된다.
    다만 접안렌즈를 분해하고 뒤에서 누르지 않으면 분해가 되지 않을수도 있다??/이 부분은 도대체 무슨 소린지 이해가 안간다. )



  • (10)이번은 뒤에서 분해.마운트 주위의 나사를 제외하면 마운트는 간단하게 빗나간다.
    (이번에는 접안렌즈 부위인 뒷면을 분해한다. 마운트 주위의 나사를 분해하면 마운트는 간단하게
    분해된다.)


  • (11)렌즈 주위의 링은 실어 있을 뿐(만큼), 뒤집으면 떨어지므로 주의이 상태에서는 짜 링도 빗나가 버리므로, 빗나가지 않게 테이프로 고정해 두는 것이 좋다고 생각한다.



  • (12)이 상태로 후옥 1, 2를 차례로 제외하면 나카타마의 엉덩이가 나타난다.



  • (13)등응 상태, 사진에서는 이해하기 어렵지만, 이렇게 흐리는 것은 시작해 보았다(^^□.


  • (14)냄비로10분 정도 삶은 후, 조금 난폭하지만 비스듬하게 만력에 끼워 단단히 졸라, 바르삼을 벗겼다.일순간 바르삼의냄새가 감돈다.



  • (15)접합면은 알코올로 깨끗이 해, 사 둔 바르삼을 성냥의 머리(정도)만큼 잡아 실어 드라이어로 가열해, 충분히 따뜻해졌을 무렵 합을 봐 합계들은 접합한다.
    따뜻하게 해 부족하면 완전하게 바르삼이 퍼지기 전에 굳어져 버리는 것과 기포의 혼입을 막기 위해서도 충분히에 가열하는 일.
    조금 굳어져 오면 중심 맞댐을 신중하게 실시하는, 이 렌즈는 엇갈림이 있으면 원래의 위치에 들어가지 않기 때문에특별히 조심하자.가열이 충분하면 바르삼은 놀라울 정도의 소량으로 상관없다고 생각한다.
    사진은 접합 후의 물건, 놀라울 정도 깨끗이 되었다.



  • (16)등응대로, 도저히 흐렸다고는 생각되지 않는다.

 

    * 발삼제거 후기
    분해에는 다양한 게눈렌치가 필요하지만, 헬리코이드나 조임의 분해는 필요없기 때문에 비교적 난이도는 낮은, 다만 게눈이 빗나가면 렌즈에 대미지를 줄 것 같은 부분도 몇인가 볼 수 있어 작업에는 세심의 주의하지만 요구된다.
    바르삼을 벗기는 방법은 제설 있는 것 같다, 가열과 급냉을 반복하면 좋다고 하는 이야기도 있지만, 이번은 시험하는 일 없이 끝나 버렸다.그런데 이렇게 되면 흐린 렌즈도 물색하고 싶어지기 때문에 이상하다 (폭소)

 

 

 

 

 


 
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  포그,발삼, 팬탁스 SMC PENTAX M 2.8 40, 발삼 렌즈 수리  +   [Film Tech/Lens]   |  2012.11.12 19:14

발삼렌즈를 수리가능하다고 올려놓은 업체가 있어서 옮겨 본다.
이번에 저가로 구매한 타쿠마렌즈의 수리가 가능한지 문의해 봐야겠다.
발삼이 렌즈면의 10%정도 진행된 상태

 

포그,발삼, 팬탁스 SMC PENTAX M 2.8 40, 발삼 렌즈 수리

 

팬탁스 SMC PENTAX M 1:2.8 M40 발삼렌즈는 수리가 가능합니다

팬탁스 40미리 렌즈는 가끔 발삼 문제로 수리가 불가 한것으로 계시는데요

팬탁스 M40 렌즈의 발삼 렌즈는 수리가 가능합니다
100% 완전한 복원 수리가 가능하며 단 시간에 빠르고 신속한 작업으로 수리를 해드립니다

저희 DEFOCUS-OPT에 발삼 렌즈 수리를 의뢰 하시면 빠른 시간내 수리를 해드리겠습니다
아주 저렴한 비용으로 수리가 가능하기 때문에 수리를 해서 사용하시면
더 나은 품질의 사진을 기대 하실수 있습니다

팬탁스 렌즈 발삼렌즈 수리 가능한 모델입니다
SMC M50 1.4, SMC M50 1.2, SMC M40 2.8 그외 발삼 렌즈느느 뭐든지 수리가 가능합니다

Contact : 02-779-4305,


 
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  Carl Zeiss Lens Design  +   [Film Tech/Lens]   |  2012.10.31 13:39

출처 : http://www.panix.com/~zone/photo/czlens.htm

Carl Zeiss Lens Design 7-2-99Alexander Lee

Overview

This list is only for designs that the Carl Zeiss Foundation has some nominal claim on the origin of design.

I created this list for a few reasons.

  • First because I was interested in the design criteria that Zeiss uses when building lens of different focal lengths, or same focal lengths but different speeds or physical size. As I felt it may have an impact on optical quality, I figured it would be good to know the family traits of lens designs for when I am shopping for new lenses.
  • Second, there have been few groundbreaking lens designs since the Biogon was developed in the 1950's. Most modern lens are based on modified older designs, or older designs reworked with modern glass and multi-coating in mind. The most common lens design still is the almost 100 year old tessar type.
  • Third, I thought it was a pretty interesting field that was not very well covered.

It was hard getting the data. Apparently there are some good books out, but my local library doesn't have them, and I'm too lazy to find it in other library systems have them request it via interlibrary loan. Most of my data came from "classic" large format lens FAQ's and various Contax/Hassleblad/Rollie lens propaganda, though the propaganda really only touted the praises in vague terms, and didn't mention any potential design limitations.

Recently, I picked up Rudolf Kingslake's excellent book "A History of the Photographic Lens", ISBN 0-12-408640-3 and am in the process of revising my data. Hopefully, I will also get Rudolf Kingslake's Modern Photographic Lens Design book as well, but I already have more material to work with than I have time to deal with it.

Misc. background on CZ lens

Bausch and Lomb was licensed to produce CZ lens in America for a while. They developed and acquired patents for several variants of CZ lens designs. Most patents back then were good for 17 years, though during the years when the USA was at war with Germany, the assets of German companies in America were put into a federal trust which managed the property, real and intellectual, until the end of the war. During that time, the federal agency could allow American companies to use the property for the war effort, or they could lease the property out. A notable example was the Leica New York repair facility. The government trust originally wanted Kodak to assume control of the repair facility to produce Leica copies using the tools and dies. Kodak wisely turned the offer down, avoiding legal problems after the war, as well as the fact that it was potentially (and actually turned out to be for the company that agreed to the offer) a money loosing proposition.

Ernst Abbe was hired by Carl Zeiss in 1866 to help Zeiss manufacture instruments in a proper scientific basis. in 1880, he hired Otto Schott to help develop new types of glass. They established Jena Glassworks in Jena Germany, and by 1886, they had a catalogue of 44 types of glass, many of which were new. They manufactured the first successful high-index crown glasses. These new glasses allowed lenses to be made that had a flat field free from astigmatism.

The Tessar design was produced in 1902, and awarded a US patent in 1903. When the patent expired in 1920 there were many variants on the Tessar design released other companies, such as some of Kodak's Ektars and Schneider's Xenars. The famous Leica 50mm f/3.5 Elmar lens released in 1920 was a Tessar type lens. After Leica introduced the first 35mm camera in 1925, Zeiss's camera division knew that they were behind in small format camera development responded a year later by acquiring four camera manufacturers a year later in 1926, Ica, Contessa-Nettel, Ernemann and Goertz and merging them into Zeiss Ikon AG.

After Zeiss absorbed Goertz in 1926, the American Goertz division became an independent company (Goertz American Optical Co.) and continued to make Goertz lens, as well as innovate new lenses. Goertz American Optical Co. was renamed to Goertz Optical Co. Inc. in 1964, purchased by Kollmorgen in 1971, then in turn, Kollmorgen was purchased by Schneider in 1972.

The first commercially viable lens coating process, but depositing a thin layer of low index material (originally calcium fluoride or magnesium fluoride) was developed by A. Smakula of Zeiss in 1936. Zeiss did not invent the concept and function of lens coating as the Contax website history wording would lead you believe. H. Dennis Taylor in 1896 observed that old lenses that had become tarnished by exposure (a natural bloom coating) transmitted more light than a newly polished lens. He postulated that the layer of tarnish had a lower refractive index than the glass, and therefore reflected less light and transmitted more if it. He was awarded the first patent for lens coating in 1903 for a chemical or acid fuming process that was highly unreliable, and the components very caustic. Viable lens coating allowed Zeiss's (and everyone else's) more complex lens designs to be implemented with much less flare and greater contrast. Previously those designs, while very much corrected for aberration and astigmatism suffered very poor contrast. The lens coating technology was considered a national security secret during W.W.II, and did not really become available to consumers until after the war was over. This coating though was a single layer that usually reduced the reflectivity of one wavelength of light. Light of other wavelengths were less affected the further up or down the spectrum from the prime wavelength. Later, plans to deposit multiple layers of coating allowed a more even reduction of reflectivity through the entire spectrum of photographical light. Leitz was the first company to sell a regular production multicoated lens to general consumers.

After W.W.II, the Allies brought the heads of the Carl Zeiss foundation, as well as key Zeiss foundation personnel from Dresden to West Germany, because they recognized the value of the optical knowledge and research that Carl Zeiss had, as well as the cold war desire for the technology not to fall into Communist hands. The Carl Zeiss foundation was moved to Western Germany (legal paper work here, not equipment) from Dresden as well. This was important because later, it allowed the Carl Zeiss Foundation to successfully press claim to various trademarked names, such as Zeiss, Carl Zeiss, and Contax. The Schott glassworks was slit into Jena Lenswork, in Russian hands, and Schott in Oberkochen.

The lensworks and camera factories in Dresden were destroyed in the Firebombing of Dresden February 14, 1945, but the Jena camera works continued to produce lens and cameras under the Carl Zeiss name until the trademark dispute between the East Germany company, and the West German was resolved. Some of the existing machinery was disassembled by Russian troops for war reparations, and were re-assembled in the newly forming USSR. The East German Carl Zeiss continued to produce cameras and lens from existing stocks of parts. Later they released a new line of SLR cameras labeled Carl Zeiss Dresden, the Contax S and Contax D. Eventually after the trademark dispute was settled, the eastern Contax SLR was renamed the Pentacon. Into the 70's, the East German Carl Zeiss had lens produced in Japan for several systems labeled Under License from Carl Zeiss Jena.

Since the re-unification of Germany, the Eastern and Western Zeiss companies have been re-united, and the headquarters is being moved back to Jena. The massive Jena optical factory which at it's height in Eastern Germany employed over 60,000 factory workers has been broken up and parts have been sold off. The binocular section has been sold to Dr. Optik, and Schneider has purchased part of the Glassworks.

Symmetrical lenses
Meniscus lens with a stop in front exhibits barrel distortion, if turned around with the stop behind the lens, it reversed into a pincushion. If two were mirrored around the stop, the distortions cancel each other and leave a distortion-less system. It also corrects for lateral color (chromatic difference of magnification) and coma. Truly symmetrical lenses must be used at 1 to 1 magnification to totally cancel the three aberrations, and exhibit some very small amounts of transverse aberration at infinity.

Asymmetrical lenses
Asymmetrical lenses, while not totally corrected for those three aberrations, can allow larger apertures and cover wider fields than symmetrical designs.

Dialyte - Airspaced Achromatic doublet.

Lens Designs

ABBE-RUDOLPH APOCHROMATIC TRIPLET
1890
E. Abbe & P. Rudolph
Zeiss
A lens consisting of a thick cemented triplet between two symmetrical periscopic lens. While well corrected for axial distortion, it suffered from severe astigmatism, and was never sold.
ANASTIGMAT / PROTAR
1890
Paul Rudolph
Zeiss
The Zeiss Anastigmat consisted of an old-achromat (cemented doublet made with a high-index fling glass and a low-index crown glass) front with a new-achromat (cemented doublet made with a high-index crown glass and a low index flint glass, making a flat field lens free from astigmatism) in the rear. This was the first lens designed specifically for photographic applications at Carl Zeiss.
There were 5 series with slightly different formulations, and two sub-variations.
The Double or Quadruple Anastigmat Series VII was a design with a cemented quadruplet lens .It could be designed to have a "convertible" focal lengths (the rear component could be use d alone or in combination with a similar front component of the same or different focal length).
Zeiss licensed several companies to manufacture these lenses:
Bausch and Lomb, Rochester, New York
Krauss, Paris, France
Ross, London, England
Fritsch, Vienna, Austria
Koristka, Milan, Italy
Suter, Basle, Switzerland

As other companies manufactured lenses called Anastigmat, Zeiss lost the trademark to the name, so in 1900, Zeiss re-named their lens Protar. The performance was not as good as they wanted, and shortly other superior lens designs came onto the field.
DAGOR
1892
Emil Von Hoegh
Goerz
Designed by Emile Von Hoegh of Goertz in 1892. The design was supposedly offered to Zeiss, but they turned it down. The design was sold go Goerz, and the design was considered so good, they offered von Hoegh a position as their principal lens designer, to succeed Carl Moser, who had recently died. The original name was Dobel (double) Anastigmat Goerz, which was reduced to the Dagor acronym in 1904. Within two month of the Dagor patent application, Rudolph of Zeiss applied for a practically identical patent which was never issued. Zeiss produced the Statz Anastigmat for a while that was nearly identical to the Goerz Dagor, but they replaced it with the Anastigmat Series VII.

The design consisted of two symmetrical cemented triplets (6 elements in 2 groups) in which the two outer elements are positive, one of the inner elements was used to correct spherical aberration and the other used to flatten the field. As there are only 4 glass to air transmission surfaces there was minimal flare and better contrast. Reputed to have good sharpness and large image circles, though there is softness at the periphery of coverage. Many Dagor designs are made so that the the circle of illumination is vignetted and the circle of good definition covers the entire film surface (with no shifts). It is more of a wide field design (+/- 30 degrees at f/6.8), rather than a wide angle design. Some designers (Zeiss Ortho-Protar, the wide angle Schneider Angulon) reversed the triplets, in which the outer elements were negative. The reversed type is thicker than the normal Dagor, leading to the risk of excessive vignetting. Schneider avoided the vignetting problem by making the outer surfaces much larger than the diameter of the axial beam.

Some well known variants are:

  • Zeiss: Orotho-Protar, Statz Anastigmat Series VI
  • Schneider: Angulon
PLANAR
1896
Paul Rudolph
Zeiss
Designed by Dr. Paul Rudolph in 1896 based on the double Gauss design (in 1817, C F Gauss described a telescope objective consisting of a pair of meniscus shaped elements, one positive, and one negative.) The design was 4 groups of 6 elements, and a flat field design. Symmetrical optical configuration producing low spherical aberration and astigmatism. The normal wide airspace separating the positive and negative elements in the double gauss design made a large amount of spherical aberration. Rudolph thickened the negative elements and reduced the airspace as much as possible, which corrected the spherical aberration and the sagittal/ tangential astigmatic aberration. Rudolph also inserted a "buried surface" into the thick negative elements of a cemented interface separating two type of glass having the same refractive index, but different dispersive powers. Not widely used until coating processes were available, due to light loss from the large number of transmission surfaces causing very low contrast. Due to it's complexity and high number of transmission surfaces, it really did not come into it's own until coating was developed. The planar was used as a base for lens derivatives, though in asymmetric form. Almost all the high-aperture lenses supplied on Japanese cameras are modification on the Planar.

Some well know variants of six element Double Gauss designs are:

  • Agfa: Soligon
  • Angenieux: S-type
  • Astro: Kino, Tachar
  • Bausch & Lomb: Aminar, baltar, Raytar
  • Boyer: Saphir
  • Dallmeyer: Super Six
  • Enna: Annaston
  • Isco: Westagon
  • Kinoptik: Apochromat, Fulgior
  • Kodak: Ektar, Aero Ektar
  • Leitz: Elcan, f/1.2Noktilux, Sumarrit, Summar, Summitar, Summicron, Dygon
  • Meyer: Domiron
  • Rodenstock: Heligon
  • Ross: Xtralux
  • Schneider: f/2 Xenon, Xenogon
  • Steinheil: Quinon
  • Taylor-Hobson: Amotal, Ivotal, Kinic, Opic Panchrotal, Speed Panchro
  • Wollensak: Raptar
  • Wray: Copying Lens
  • Zeiss: Biotar, Flexon
UNAR
1899
Paul Rudolph
Zeiss
Paul Rudolph replaced both cemented interfaces in his anastigmat design with narrow airspaces, producing the Unar. It was a hybrid design, in which the rear type was a Gauss type with two single meniscus elements, while the front half was a dialyte. The air spaces in the shape of a positive lens helped correct spherical aberration, and allowed designers a larger choice of glass, as they can use glasses with the same refractive index on both sides of the air space. Using glasses of identical refractive lenses cemented together would effectively make one big useless lens..
HELIAR
1900
Hans Harting
Voigtlander
Hans Harting came up with this design while trying to create a symmetrical modification of the Cooke Triplet (in 1893 H. Dennis Taylor developed the triplet. Taking a thin positive element and a thin negative element and putting them together would neutralize each other, and create a zero Petzval sum. Separating the lens, the system would acquire a positive power, but the petzval sum is unchanged. The highly asymmetrical arrangement would have poor oblique aberrations, so Taylor suggested splitting one of the elements in half, and mounting each have on opposite sides of the other element.) Consisting of 5 elements in three groups, Harting replaced the single rear element of the Triplet with a cemented doublets, allowing him to correct for spherical, chromatic, astigmatic aberrations and the Petzval sum, leaving the symmetry of the lens to correct the three transverse aberrations. The original patent had a heavy coma when used on distant subjects, so two years later, Hartig came out with an asymmetrical version of the lens. In 1903, Hans Harting reversed the outer components around so the cemented interfaces were convex towards the stop instead of concave, which was slightly worse in astigmatism but otherwise better. In 1903 as well, Hans Harting patented a hybrid design called the Oxyn in which the front element was similar to the Heliar, while the rear doublet resembled the Dynar. At low apertures, the Dynar was an excellent lens. In 1919, Dallmeyer produced a Dynar type lens called the Pentac with a high aperture of f2/9. While the field was slightly inward curving, the lens was excellent in every other respect. After World War I, Voigtlander revived the Dynar type but felt the Heliar name was preferable.
HYPERGON
1900
????
Goerz
The Hypergon is an extreme wide angle lens (+/- 67 degrees) covering a flat field. It is of symmetrical construction consisting of two deep meniscus elements that almost form a sphere. The aperture was limited to f/20 due to the spherical and chromatic aberrations. As well, there is a large amount of light falloff from the center, requiring a a cog wheel which spun by air for most of the exposure then swung out of the way in order to allow even exposure. Currently Canham is producing these lenses, but with adjustable waterhouse stops, and a center filter instead of a cog wheel.
TESSAR
1902
Paul Rudolph
Zeiss
Designed by Dr. Paul Rudolph in 1902, utilizing the rear cemented doublet of the Anastigmat and the airspaced front component of Unar. The front element was of very low power, like the Anastigmat design, and it's sole function was to correct the remaining aberrations of the strong g new-achromat rear component. The cemented rear component reduces zonal spherical aberration, reduces overcorrected oblique spherical aberration, and reduces the gap between astigmatic foci at intermediate field angles. The first design was f/6.3, but by 1917 the aperture was raised to f/4.5, and in 1930, W. Merte and E. Wandersleb raised it to f/2.8. The 50mm f/3.5 Elmar lens fitted to the early Leica cameras was a Tessar type designed by Max Berek in 1920. The US patent was received 1903, giving Zeiss a monopoly on the design until 1920, the end of World War I. Uses a 4 elements 3 group design, light, small, relatively high resolution, inexpensive to produce comparatively to other designs. Designed to be sharp at most apertures, but has limited coverage. It was widely copied and many variants made as it was seen as a good compromise between the Dagor and Artar designs for coverage, sharpness, and contrast.

Some more notable lens of the Tessar type have appears under the following names, though some of the names are of a product family also include other lens designs:

  • Agfa :Solinar
  • Berthiot: Flor, Ilor
  • Boyer: Saphir
  • Busch:Glyptar
  • Dallmeyer:Dalmac, Perfac, Serrac
  • Erenmann: Ernon
  • Hermagis: Hellor, Lynx
  • Ilex: Paragon
  • Kodak: Ektar
  • Laak: Dailytar
  • Leits: Elmar, Varop
  • Meyer: Primotar
  • Playbel: Anticomar
  • Rodenstock: Ysar
  • Ross: Xtralux
  • Roussel: Stylor
  • Schneider: Comparon, Xenar
  • Tayer-Hobson: Apotal, Ental
  • Voigtlander: Heliostigmat, Skopar
  • Wollensak: Raptar
  • Wray: Lustrar

Some variation were produced which allowed companies to bypass the copyright. One in which the lens is turned around so the cemented doublet is in front, and the airspaced element behind was made by several manufacturers. Another was using a cemented triplet in the rear instead of a doublet. The Voigtlander Heliar and it's variations could be considered a modified tessar, but it was produced before the announcement of the Tessar, and was a modification of the Triplet lens design.

ALETHAR
1903
W. Zschokke
Goerz
This design was a symmetrical apochromatic process lens for graphic arts. It was a basic dialyte type, but with cemented triplets in place of the inner negative elements. Due to the primitive glass used, it did not live up to it's billing as an apochormat, and was soon discontinued.
ARTAR
1904
W. Zschokke
Goerz
After the failure of the Alethar, Walter Zschokke and F. Urban, designed a much simpler Artar. It is based on a 4 element air-spaced type lens called a "dialyte" (dialyte is a design by Emile Von Hoegh), so is sharp across entire field of illumination
The positive elements were a dense barium crown, and the negative elements were made of telescope flint glass. Designed to be apochromatic for use in three color graphics arts. It has a narrower field of coverage than Tessar. This lens was the regular Goerz process lens for almost seventy years. Current modern implementations of this design are the Nikkor M series LF lens and the Schneider G-Claron's.
ERNOSTAR
1919
Ludwig Bertele
Ernemann Co.
In an attempt to raise the aperture of the Cooke Triplet, Charles C. Minor inserted a positive meniscus element into the front airspace. Ludwig Bertele decided to also work on the Cooke triplet with Charles C. Minors modification. His design consisted of cemented doublets for the front two elements. It was the first f/2 lens, and the first lens with an aperture large enough for candid available light photography. in 1920, he was able to improved his design to make the f stop size 1.8. He also developed a simpler model with a f-stop of 2.7.
BIOTESSAR
1925
E. Wansersleb & W. Merte
Zeiss
A variation of the Tessar, consisting of a cemented doublet in the front, a single negative element, and a cemented triplet in the rear.
MAKRO PLASMAT
1926
???
Zeiss
The design was a hybrid in a f/2.9 setting. The 6 element Gauss type had the rear three elements separated with air spaces. It was made for many years and was a popular lens.
SONNAR
1930
Ludwig Bertele
Zeiss
Ernemann Company was taken over by the Zeiss-Ikon combine, and shortly in 1930, Ludwig Bertele started the design of the Sonnar type lens based on the second (f/1.8) Ernostar type. It was completed in 1931, and was a f/2 Sonnar. The sonnar negative triplet consisted of a high-index outside and a lower-index element between. In 1932, he released a f/1.5 version with a strong cemented interface on the rear component. This allowed correction on the higher-order spherical aberration which was needed in a lens of the high aperture. The name Sonnar had been used previously by the Contessa Company for a camera with a Tessar type lens, but as Zeiss-Ikon absorbed Contessa, they acquired rights to the name. The design uses less elements than Planar, so when coating tech was primitive, the lens had much less flare due to less surfaces in design. Simpler than Planar, smaller and comparatively inexpensive. Good contrast at edges at all apertures. Exhibits some softness at wide apertures. Sharp when stopped down.
MINIATURE PLASMAT
1931
Paul Rudolph
Zeiss
This was a Hybrid lens type, consisting of a front component which was a ordinary two meniscus element Gauss type, and the rear component was the rear half of a Plasmat. It was a design of no particular strength and was not produces for long. The lens arraignment was revived by Ludwig Bertele in his design of a f/2.7 lens for the Contax 35mm camera. He called the design a Biogon, which was later re-used by Zeiss
R-BIOTAR
1932
Willy Merte
Zeiss
This was a high aperture narrow angle lens that was a variant of the Petzcal lens
TOPOGON
1933
Robert Richter
Zeiss
This was a double Gauss design arranged in a symmetrical design. Due to it's wide angle coverage, and the small, though present, distortion, it, and the slightly modified form of Bauch and Lomb, called the Metrogon, became the standard aerial lens until the Wild Aviogon displaced it in 1952. It covered a full 90 degree field at f/6.3, and in it's 6 inch size, it covered the 9"x9" format which was used in aerial photography and photogramy. The 12 in size was also made to cover a 18"x18" format.

Some more notable lens of the Topogon type have appears under the following names, though some of the names are of a product family also include other lens designs:

  • Bauch and Lomb: Metrogon, Process Anastigmat
  • Boyer: Perle
  • Busch: omnar
  • Dallmmmeyer: Wide-Angle Anastigmat
  • Goerz: Geotar, Rectagon
  • Hermagis: Dellor Series D
  • Ilex: Anastigmat Series D
  • Kodak: Wide-field Ektar
  • Laak: Wide-angle Dialytar
  • Meyer: Aristostigmat
  • Plaubel: Wide-angle Orthar, Pecostigmat
  • Rietzschel: Dialyte
  • Rodenstock: Eurynar, Luminar, Ronar
  • Ross: Homoentric
  • Schneider: Isconar
  • SOM: Aquilor
  • Wollensak: Wide-angle Raptar
  • Wray: Wide-angle Copying Lens
  • Zeiss: Kekla, Topogon
PLEON
19?? (WWII)
????
Zeiss
Designed for wide-angle Aerial photography, this lens covered +/- 65 degrees. It had considerable barrel distortion, which was removed by printing the negative in a special distorting printer. The height of the Pleon followed the Fish-eye lens law, so the illumination was not uniform, but it was better than if the design was designed distortion-less.
BIOGON
second, current form
1951
Ludwig Bertele
Zeiss
Designed by Dr. Ludwig Bertele in 1951 based on a double-ended reversed-telephoto objective designed by M.M Roosinov (M.M Roosinov had that general patent in 1946 which consists of a central positive structure with one or more large negative menisci at each end making a roughly symmetrical arrangement), for a ultra-wide angle lens for Zeiss to use on their Zeiss' Contax 35mm camera and on Hasselblad's cameras. The design was physically large, being two focal lengths in length and one focal length in diameter. Zeiss's Biogon had two menisci at the front, and a single strong meniscus element at the rear. The rear element is close to film plane for low distortion and better contrast, but interferes with mirror for SLR. Because a master patent could not be obtained for the lens design, other companies used this excellent design, such as Schneider's Super Angulon, with one menisci at each end. The design is similar to the Aviogon lens that Dr. Bertele designed in 1952 for Aerial photography for the Wild Company of Heerbrugg in Switzerland with two menisci at each end. The Wild Aviogon was first produced in a 115mm focal length to cover a 18cm square, and with distortion of less than 10 microns at any point in the field, quickly became the standard lens for aerial photography and photogrammetry. Bertele patented a variant on the design with three meniscus elements on each end which covered about 120 degrees of total field.

Some more notable design variants

  • Schneider: Super Angulon
  • Wild: Aviogon
  • Zeiss: Hologon
HOLOGON
1966
Erhard Glatzel
Zeiss
Designed by Dr. Erhard Glatzel in 1966, it is really a modification of the Biogon lens design. 5 elements in 3 groups. The rear element is close to film plane for better contrast, but interferes with mirror for SLR. There is significant light falloff at edges, so it is frequently used with ND center graduated filters. Current implementations are a 15.5mm and 16mm f8 fixed aperture lens. I believe that the 16mm is really the 15.5mm rounded off. At f/8 the lens covers a flat field of +/- 55 degrees without distortion.
DISTAGON
????
????
Zeiss
This is a reversed telephoto lens, consisting of a large negative lens in front of an ordinary lens. This allows it to obtain a short overall focal length with elements of a larger and more manageable size, helps design a system that is favorable for both high relative aperture and wild-angular field, and increased the back focal distance beyond it's usual magnitude, which give space for the mirror of a SLR. The downsides are that is must be physically large, and of complex construction to correct all the aberrations, making the lens more expensive to produce. Reversed telephoto designs are rarely over 2 inches in focal length, and then it is only used for specific applications. Compared to the Biogon, it has a larger circle of illumination full aperture, though softer when wide open, though it is sharper when stopped down. Rear element does not interfere with mirrors in SLR's

Some definitions of terms I use in the list

  • Aberrations - Aberrations are image defects that result from limitations in the way lenses can be designed. Better lenses have smaller aberrations,but aberrations can never be completely eliminated, just reduced. The classic aberrations are:
    • Spherical aberration. Light passing through the edge of the lens is focused at a different distance (closer in simple lenses) than light striking the lens near the center.
    • Coma. Off axis points are rendered with tails, reminiscent of comets, hence the name. It can be shown that coma must occur if the image formed by rays passing near the edge of the lens has a different magnification than the image formed by rays passing near the center of the lens.
    • Astigmatism. Off-axis points are blurred in their the radial or tangential direction, and focusing can reduce one at the expense of the other, but cannot bring both into focus at the same time. Think of it as the focal length as varying around the circumference of the lens. (Optometrists apply the word "astigmatism" to a defect in the human eye that causes *on-axis* points to be similarly blurred. That astigmatism is not quite the same as astigmatism in photographic lenses.)
    • Curvature of field. Points in a plane get focused sharply on a curved surface, rather than a plane (the film). Or equivalently, the set of points in the object space that are brought to sharp focus on the film plane form a curved surface rather than a plane. With a plane subject or a subject at infinite distance the net effect is that when the center is in focus the edges are out of focus, and if the edges are in focus the center is out of focus.* Distortion (pincushion and barrel). The image of a square object has sides that curve in or out. (This should not be confused with the natural perspective effects that become particularly noticeable with wide angle lenses.) This happens because the magnification is not a constant, but rather varies with the angle from the axis.
    • Chromatic aberration. The position (forward and back) of sharp focus varies with the wavelength.
    • Lateral color. The magnification varies with wavelength.
  • APO or Apochromatic - The distance behind the lens at which monochromatic light (light of a single wavelength) comes to focus varies as a smooth function of the wavelength. If this function has a zero derivative in the visible range, and hence if there are two wavelengths at which the light comes to focus in the same plane, the lens is called achromatic. If there is a higher order correction, usually with the result that 3 or more visible wavelengths come to focus at the same distance, the lens is called apochromatic. Some authorities add more conditions. Apochromatic lenses often contain special low-dispersion glasses. APO is an abbreviation for apochromatic.
  • Asymmetrical - Front and rear lens groups of lens are not the same.
  • Cells - Sets of lens groups designed to function as a unit
  • Circle of good definition - Effective circumference of coverage that is usably sharp.
  • Circle of illumination - Effective circumference of coverage that has useable/recordable light
  • Coating - Before coating, each transmission surface resulted in about a 4% to 8% loss of light to reflection depending on the refractive index of the glass. So an uncoated Dagor or Protar with four transmission surfaces looses 15% to 29% of the light to flare. An uncoated Tessar looses 22% to 40% of the light to flare. An uncoated Planar with eight surfaces looses 28% to 49% of light to flare. The flare would exhibit itself on the film as unfocused non-image forming light which reduced the contrast of the picture.
    • Single Coating - After single coating, this dropped to about 2% to 4% loss of light per transmission surface. Applying the coating at quarter wavelength thickness could greatly increase the effectiveness of the coat, but it could completely block some wavelengths of light and partially block others. Typically blue-green wavelengths were suppressed with an amber coat, or green wavelengths with a purple coat.
    • Multi-coating - Multicoating was first done as two separate coats at different wavelength thickness on different transmission surfaces to balance the color of the light transmitted to the film. Later, multi-coating as we know it, one coat stacked on another (first used on a production lens by Leitz) reduced the light lost to diffraction further to about 1/2% to 1% per transmission surface. The classic second coat was bismuth oxide again applied at quarter wavelength thickness for a different wavelength, typically orange-yellow for the second coat and green-blue for the first coat giving a faint green reflection. A multi-coated Planar could now only loose about 4% to 8% of the light to flare, quite a difference.

    Coating and multicoating allowed designers to use more complex designs with more air spaces which allowed easier design for correction of spherical aberrations. The difference between uncoated lenses and coated lenses are great, the difference between single coating and multi-coating is visible, but not nearly as great as the first leap from uncoated to coated. Coating and multicoating opened the way for many otherwise unfeasible modern lens designs, such as complex wide-angle lenses, big multi-element zooms, and lots of marketing hype. Coating still won't save you from nasty flare in certain lighting conditions, such as shooting into the sun, so make sure to use those lens shades!

  • Convertible Lens - A set cells that can be combined together in different pairs or singly to produce different effective focal lengths. Each cell must be able to correct and focus the image properly on the film alone. If a cell is used singly, it is mounted behind the shutter.
  • Elements - individual lens
  • Groups - single lenses or groups of lenses cemented together
  • Symmetrical - Front section of lens is identical mirror image of rear section. Because of this, aberrations and astigmatisms are minimized. Inherently optimized for 1:1.
  • Transmission surfaces - Lens element to air surface.

Source information

Classic vs. Modern Lens

  • Basic lens questions, by John Sparks
  • Importance of corrections for color vs. B&W Richard Knoppow
  • Untitled by Timothy Takahashi
  • Untitled by Barry Sherman
  • Untitled by Alan Heldman
  • Untitled by Thor Lancelot Simon
  • Untitled by Pete Bergstrom
  • Untitled by Mark
  • Untitled by Eric Volpe
  • Untitled by Edward M. Lukacs
  • Untitled by Richard Knoppow

Contax USA Website

More on Classic lenses

  • Untitled by Richard Knoppow
  • Untitled by Larry Whatley

Lens FAQ by David Jacobson

View Camera (unknown vol. and issue, will add the info when I dig up the magazine)

A History of the Photographic Lens by Rudolf Kingslake, copyright 1989, Academic Press Inc. ISBN 0-12-408640-3


 
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  란탄/란타늄 (Lanthanum)렌즈에 대한 정보  +   [Film Tech/Lens]   |  2012.10.28 20:13

방사성 물질이 함유된 렌즈 리스트 들이 돌아다닐 정도로 이부분에 대해서 걱정하는 분들이 많다.
과연 안전한 것인가....
그래서 이곳 저곳 검색을 해 본 결과를 옮겨본다.
해외 검색 결과도 함께 올려보니 좀더 정확한 정보가 될수 있을 것이다.
요즘 우리나라가 반도체 기술이 발달되었으나 희토류 자원이 전무하여 중국등에서 매우 고가로 매입하고 있다는 사실을
뉴스매체를 통해서 많이들 듣는다.
란타늄이 희토류에 속하는데, 러시아에는 이 희토류가 비교적 풍부해서 러시아 렌즈에 쉽게 사용했다고 한다.
란탄이 들어간 렌즈에는 russian Industar lenses---Industar 61와 Industar 61 L/D이 있다.
그리고 라이카 스크류 마운트(M39)에도 사용되었다. 이 런즈들은  4군 3매정도의 매우 간단한 구조임에도 불구하고 밝고
구면수차가 적은 렌즈를 만들수 있는 기술의 원동력이 란타늄의 저렴한 사용가능성이라고 생각된다.
적당한 렌즈 설계 및 가공기술과 풍부한 자원의 만남이 휼륭한 광학적 성능을 가졌으나 저렴한 러시아 렌즈의 원천이다.

란타늄 (Lanthanum)렌즈에 대한 정보
희토류인 란탄, 즉 원자번호 57번 란타늄 (Lanthanum)이 들어간 (LaK9 유리를 사용한) 라이카 렌즈들은 좀 있는 것으로 알고 있습니다. 가령 같은 광학적 구조임에도 주마론 3.5를 2.8로 더 밝게 할 수 있었던 것도 굴절률이 높은 란타늄 유리를 썼기 때문이구요. 란타늄은 그러나 자연에서 대부분 방사능을 갖지 않는 상태입니다. 동위원소 중 99.9% 이상을 안정된, 원자량 138을 갖는 란타늄이 차지하고 있구요.
그러니 란타늄 들어간 렌즈는 방사능하고는 관계 없습니다.

문제는 찜찜한 이 원소의 모든 동위 원소가 다 방사성인 토륨 (Throrium)인데, 말씀들 하신 대로 산화된 형태로 주미크론 침동식 초기 특정 시리얼 (이는 인터넷 상에서 찾으면 나오지만 신빙성은 모르겠고 노랗게 황변된 상태로 구별할 수 있지 않을까요?) 에서 7매의 렌즈 중 1, 3, 6번 렌즈에 쓰였지만, 이는 곧 방사능이 없는 산화 란타늄으로 교체되었다고 하고, 이 외에 다른 '라이카'렌즈에서 이 산화토륨 렌즈를 사용했다는 이야기는 없는 듯 합니다.
그리고 다시 한 번 이 토륨 렌즈... 양은 적지만 방사능 여전히 나옵니다. 흑백에서는 좋다고 하나 컬러에서는 사진 색이 그다지 좋지 않다고 합니다.
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란탄코팅 : 란탄은 3개의 동소체를 갖고 있으며, 천연에서 2개의 도우이원소가 발견되는데 139La(99.911%)는
안정하며 138La(0.089%)는 수명이 매우 긴 방사성 동위원소이다.
고순도의 산화란탄은 저분산고굴절 렌즈에 사용된다.
카메라 렌즈에 사용한 란탄은 모두 비방사성 란탄성분이다.
란탄(Lanthanum)의 경우, 방사성 동위원소인 La-138은 불과 0.09%이며 대부분의 99.91%는 La-139계열의
비상사성 광물질 이다.
유리의 종류는 규산염 유리, 붕규산염유리, 인사염유리로 나눌수 있는데, 그중에 붕규산유리가 우리가 흔히
사용하는 렌즈용 유리이다.
가장먼저 사용된 란탄성분은 짜이즈의 플라나 이다.
1901년에  Zeiss의 M.Von,Rohr박사가 굴절율이 높고, 분산율이 적은 자연산 산화란탄(Lanthanum oxide)를
렌즈제조에이용하여 세계 최초로 비구면 렌즈를 만들어 냈다.
즉 란탄의 이용은 색감의 문제가 아닌 구면수차 및 비구면 렌즈의 상 일그러짐, 주변부 화질개선등을 위해
사용된 것이지, 독특한 색감과는 무관하다 할수 있다.

 


 
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  Industar-61 L/Z 50mm f2.8의 별보케 효과 실험촬영  +   [Film Tech/Lens]   |  2012.10.27 19:32

Industar-61 L/Z 50mm f2.8 렌즈는 F5.6과 F8에서 별보케가 극대화 되고, 선예도는 F4에서 가장 좋다.
F11과 F16에서는 보케가 원형도 아니고 해서 그리 예쁘지 않다.
F2.8

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F4

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F5.6

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F8

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F11

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F16


 
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  Industar-61 L/Z 50mm f2.8 별보케 렌즈  +   [Film Tech/Lens]   |  2012.10.27 19:17

레이카 마운트용으로 M39와 펜탁스스크류마운트(M42)마운트로 생산이 되었다.
이 렌즈의 특징은 국내에서 별보케 렌즈로 통한다.
이 별보케는 F5.6과 F8에서 강하게 나타나는 현상인데 최대개방이나 최소개방에서는 보이지 않는다
별보케가 나타나는 이유는아래 그림과 같이 조리개가 별모양이기 때문이다.


별로 매물도 없고, 스펙도 정확하게 나와있는 곳도 없다.
대략 렌즈사양을 찾아본 것이지만, 정확한지는 모르겠다.
이 렌즈의 다른 특징으로는 Macro 라고 할수 있을정도로 접사비율이 좋다.
그렇다고 해서 1:1접사는 아니고 1:3정도의 접사 비율로 알고있다.
또한 콘트라스트가 매우 높아서 색감이 짙게 나온다.
선예도가 좋으며 매우 가볍기 때문에 스냅용으로 유용하다.
F4에서 가장 선예도가 좋은 렌즈이다.
최소 촛점거리는 22cm 정도로 짧은 편이라서 간이 접사가 된다.
필터는 일반적으로 러시아렌즈들 같이 49mm 구경을 사용하면 된다.

Angle of view - 46 °

Focal length - 50 mm
 
Relative aperture - 1:2.8
 
Frame format - 24x36 mm
 
Number of lenses / groups - 4 / 3
 
The limits of the scale diaphragms - 1:2,8-1:16
 
Near focusing limit is - 1.2 m
 
The resolving power of TU (center / edge) - 40/27 lines / mm.

Lens Industar-61 L/D 50 mm f/ 2.8

Pictures

Industar-61 L/D 50 mm f/ 2.8 lens

Industar-61 L/D 50 mm f/ 2.8 lens

Optical design

Industar-61 L/D 50 mm f/ 2.8 optical scheme

Format: 35mm rangefinder

Type: Prime lens

Focusing: Manual Focus (MF)

Lens mounts: M39 Leica screw-mount (LSM)

First year of production: 1971

Optical scheme: 4 elements in 3 groups (Tessar)

User reviews (1)

Photos (6)

Tests (0)

Owners (26)

Views (263)

Average price: $12

Specifications:

Focal length Max. aperture Min. aperture Blades Min. Focus (m.) Filter Ø (mm.) Weight (gr.) Length (mm.)
50mm f/2.8 f/16 6 1 40 140 48

Additional information:

Industar-61 L/D 50 mm f/2.8 (Russian: "Индустар-61 Л/Д 50/2.8")


The Industar 61 was produced at the FED factory in Kharkov, Ukraine. It is a "normal" lens for M39 (Leica screw mount) and M42 (Pentax screw mount), with a focal length from 52-55mm, depending on the production run. It has four elements in three groups and the six-blade iris provides a range of apertures from f/2.8 to f/22. It is commonly found on rangefinders made by FED and Zorki. Its brand name Industar refers to the class of similar 4-element/3-group lens constructions of the whole soviet photo-optical industry.

The Industar 61 L/D is possibly the most highly regarded lens for Ukrainian Leica copies apart from the 35mm Jupiter-12. In an L/D or L/Z version of this lens, the L indicates that the lens has (slightly radioactive) Lanthanum in it, and D indicates M39 mount while Z indicates M42 mount. Most examples are multi-coated and are marked as such with MC. Some Industar 61 L/Z bear the logo of LZOS, probably having been made by that company.


 
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  Zeiss Ikon Contax Rangefinder Lenses  +   [Film Tech/Lens]   |  2012.10.20 02:26

Zeiss Ikon Contax Rangefinder Lenses



Please note:
There are literally hundreds of small variations amongst the Contax RF lenses. The values below are based upon the common of examples. In addition, the value of Contax lenses varies greatly between one in Very Good condition compared to one in Excellent Condition, more so than most collectible lenses. Please make note of the values and the corresponding condition of the lens in the tables below.

NOTE: Since the market is very thin for these early lenses, price can vary widely - especially ones in very clean condition. Most of the early Contax lenses have lived a hard life and show it.


Lenses produced from 1932-1936 with black enamel trim



NOTE: Lenses produced from 1936 until WWII, with a Chrome finish and uncoated from the factory. These lenses have survived in much better condition than the earlier Contax lenses.

Lens Model

Amount $$ For Lens in

Excellent- (8+) condition

Tessar 2.8cm F8

$ 275

Biogon 3.5cm F2.8

$ 400

Herar 3.5cm F3

Ultra Rare

Orthometar 3.5cm F4.5

$ 600

Biotar 4cm F2

Biotar 4 1/4cm F2

$ 2,000

Sonnar 5cm F1.5

$ 220

Sonnar 5cm F2 ( coll & rigid )

$ 175 (r) $ 150 (c)

Tessar 5cm F2.8 (coll )

Tessar 5cm F3.5 ( c & r )

$ 350 (r)

Biotar 7.5cm F1.5

Sonnar 8.5cm F2

$ 350

Triotar 8.5cm F4

$ 150

Sonnar 13.5cm F4

$ 125

Tele-Tessar K 18cm F6.3

"Olympia" Sonnar 18cm F2.8


NOTE: With the division of Germany after WWII, lenses were made in East Germany ( Jena ) & West Germany ( Opton ).

Many lenses were produced with an alloy ( aluminum ) rather than brass. All lenses were now coated by the factory.


True or not, collectors feel that East German lenses were inferior to West German lenses, while earlier "Opton" marked W.G. lenses were very slightly inferior to the later W.G. "Carl Zeiss" marked lenses.


Lens Model ( introduction date )

Amount $$ For Lens in Excellent (9-) condition

Comments

EAST and/or WEST

Biogon 21mm F4.5 ('55)

$ 650

West, "Carl Zeiss"

Topogon 25mm F4

$ 2100

East, "Jena"

Biogon 35mm F2.8 ('50)

$475 O / $275 J / $700 CZ

Both, "Jena" & "Opton" & "Carl Zeiss"

Planar 35mm F3.5 ('54)

$ 600

West, "Carl Zeiss"

Biometar 35mm F2.8

$ 650

East, "Jena"

Sonnar 5cm F1.5

$ 225

Both, "Jena" & "Opton" & "Carl Zeiss"

Sonnar 5cm F2

$200 J / $ 275 O / $ 275CZ

Both, "Jena" & "Opton" & "Carl Zeiss"

Tessar 5cm F3.5

$ 575 Opton

Both

Tessar 5cm F3.5 Macro

West

Biotar 75mm F1.5

East

Sonnar 8.5cm F2

$ 450

Both, "Jena" & "Opton" & "Carl Zeiss"

Triotar 8.5cm F4

$ 150

Both, "Jena" & "Opton" & "Carl Zeiss"

Sonnar 13.5cm F4

$ 200

Both, "Jena" & "Opton" & "Carl Zeiss"



 
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  Nikkor-O f=2.1cm 1:4  +   [Film Tech/Lens]   |  2012.10.20 02:19

Nippon Kogaku KK / Nikon Rangefinder RF-Nikkor-O f=2.1cm 1:4 (21mm f/4.0)
ultra-wideangle lens for Nikon S-Mount Rangefinder cameras


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Contarex 1 (Zeiss Ikon) with Carl Zeiss Biogon 25mm f/4.5 by Photo Arsenal Worldwide@EBAY.com
The Nikon RF Nikkor 1:4 f=2.1cm, was released rather late in May, 1959. But still, at the time of its introduction, it was one of the world's widest wideangle lens available for 35mm photography . However, the RF Nikkor extreme wideangle lens was not the first in such catagory as Contarex 21mm f/4.5 Biogon which has an almost identical designing principle (along with the Zeiss 38mm Biogon T* for the 6x 6 format fixed lens Hassleblad SWA (Supreme Wide Angle) was already being introduced earlier in 1954. So, most people prefer to term Nikon's effort as a duplication of German innovation rather than seeing it as an original effort by introducing such an extraordinary ultra-wideangle lens for the Rangefinder/Reflex Nikon. Well, regardless the background or intention, the resulting effort had enabled Nikon photographers to enjoy an outstanding ultrawideangle lens during that era.

Credit: Image courtesy of Photo_Arsenal-Worldwide® Germany. The Company also maintains an active EBAY Store, trading many used and new photo equipment of various labels. Photo Arsenal can be contacted at Photo Arsenal Boris Jamchtchik, Altenfurter Str.16a 90475 Nuernberg Germany Tel.: +49 (0) 911/ 4008081 .Image(s) copyright © 2008. All rights reserved. Please respect the visual property of the contributing photographer.

Link to Zeiss-Opton / Carl Zeiss Jena BIOGON 21mm f/4.5 page Link to Zeiss-Opton / Carl Zeiss Jena BIOGON 21mm f/4.5 page
Photo Above:- Probably due to rarity and highly prized by collectors, good pictures of both the RF Nikkor 2.1cm and Contax's 21mm f/4.5 Biogon were difficult to find. This picture was a Contarex 1 mounted with a Carl Zeiss 21mm f/4.5 Biogon lens (with accessory Finder mounted onto camera) was extracted from Photo Arsenal Worldwide@EBAY.com EBAY auction sale. The Zeiss version was believed to have been introduced around 1958, has an optical formula of 8 elements in 5 groups. Its closest focusing distance reaches approx. 1m (3 ft). Operation is via manual preset method. It requires Mirror Lock up on the Contarex 1 as shown and it was supplied with a mounted-on accessory finder. With later models such as Contarex Super or Super Electronic, TTL measurement may not work in such combination. For other photos of the lens: CLICK ON THESE LINKS 1: 21mm Biogon mounted on a Nikon SP; Original setup of Contax IIIa with a Carl Zeiss 21mm f/4.5 Biogon. Zeiss BIOGON 1:4.5 f=21mm (3 views by D.Stephens).

<
<<--- Series of superb views on RF Zeiss-OPTON 4.5/21mm / Carl Zeiss Jena BIOGON 21mm f/4.5 (with info/picture of Finder 435/Turret 440 Universal Finder) by Leica shop for their online auctions.
Contaxrex Carl Zeiss Biogon 21mm f/4.5 Contax Carl Zeiss Biogon 21mm f/4.5 Leica 21mm f/4.0 Super Angulon
Credit: All images (lens hood, Optical Finder and rear/side views below) herein courtesy of Mr. Kelvin from his popular gokelvincameras@Ebay Store which retails for many hard-to-find Nikon, canon, Leica, Contax and other collectible oldies. All images Copyright © 2008. All rights reserved.
Carl Zeiss old 21mm f/4.5 Biogon ultra-wideangle lens Schneider 21mm Super Angulon f/3.4 21mm Super Angulon f/3.4 newer version
OTHER INFO:- LEITZ M-specific; Leitz/Schneider 21mm f/4.0 Super Angulon; Far left:- Carl Zeiss version of the 21mm f/4.5 BIOGON. Leitz also produced a 21mm Biogon f/4.0 (Super Angulon) (1958~1963); Center:- Leitz/Schneider 21mm f/3.4 BIOGON (Super Angulon) (1963~1980); from 1980 onwards; LEICA Elmarit-M 21mm f2.8 ASPH version replaced the standard non-Aspherical model). Far Right: Leitz/Schneider remake of a Super Angulon 21mm f/3.4 BIOGON.

Credit
:- All images of the 3 lenses courtesy of Photo_Arsenal-Worldwide® Germany

Hassleblad Supreme Wide Angle (SWA) model, 1954 Hassleblad SWC Swiss ALPHA with Zeiss 38mm f/4.5
NOTE: The successful formula of Biogon was used in many formats. The 1954's Hassleblad SWA ("Hasselblad Supreme Wide Angle (SWA) which was marketed between 1954-1958 (in between, the SW 1956 has a slightly changed lens barrel construction). The fixed BIOGON design 38mm f/4.5 lens on the 6x6 format system camera was changed as "SWC" in 1959 (1959-1979) . SWC/M was introduced between 1980-1988. The more popular model name of 903 SWC was used in 1988 (1988-2001). The current model 905 SWC was sold between 2001-2006. Other than Hassleblad, the Swiss made ALPHA also has an alternate Carl Zeiss Biogon 38mm f/4.5 T*. Ref: Hassleblad Historical @EU Site.

Nikon (Nippon Kogaku K.K.) RF Nikkor-O 1:4 f=2.1cm (21mm f/4.0) ultra-wideangle lens for Nikon Bayonet S-Mount Rangefinder cameras Introduced: May, 1959; Discontinued: June, 1960

It was believed Nikon had released the rangefinder version of their 2.1cm lens first with the bayonet S-Mount in May, 1959. Due to the late release date, NO known screw mount (SM) was available so far for this ultrawide. Basically, in preparation for their first reflex SLR camera, Nikon F which eventually was launched in the same year, some of the Nikkor lenses released during this interim period actually were being designed in both (S/F Mount) platforms. Many people think the comparing F-mount version of this 21mm ultrawide was actually being released barely a few months later in November, 1959. Although optically, both S/F mount versions were identical, but somehow the rangefinder version was slightly more compact than the reflex F-mount version. One of the significant difference between the two is, the S-mount has a 43mm filter thread while the F-mount model has a standard 52mm filter attachment size. This possibly had contributed to the difference in size/weight between the two (S-mount model weighs lighter at 127.5g (4.5oz) while the F-mount model weighs 210g (48 oz). The carefully schemed introduction of the Nikon F with the absolute convenience in direct TTL reflex viewing has a few distinctive advantage for shooting (esp. the telephoto range onwards). Besides, where it is further supplemented with a host of useful and practical system accessories (such as the Nikon lens group) which provide literally with many new possibilities such as from Fisheye-Nikkor, macro photography to super-telephotos usage etc. The reflex debut was an instant commercial success for Nikon.
rare, Nippon Kogaku KK (Nikon) 21mm f4 Nikkor-O ultrawideangle lens with matching 21mm finder
The late debut of the 2.1cm RF version which actually was being released during a period of change in the market place where Nikon also began to shift development effort towards the SLR framework. Come to think of it, ain't the current trend of film to digital is similar to those days ?. So, this probably may be part of the reason why many of the RF lenses were not being produced in large quantity. For an example, the RF Nikkor 2.1cm f/4.0 Ultra-wideangle was believed to have been in production for a short duration of probably less than a year (May 1959~June 1960). And from the many available sources, only a small quantity of less than 500 units* of the RF model were being produced thus far. This has made the RF Nikkor 2.1cm wideangle one of the most source-after RF Nikkor collectible optic in the market today.
* NOTE:- Japanese collectors have their own opinion that only exacting 300 units were being produced. Mr. Robert Rotoloni, author of An Illustrated History of Nikon Rangefinder Cameras had given a similar figures of Serial Number from 621000 ~ 621330 but he holds the belief that the figures may run higher than the official number.
Front lens element and lens data of a rare Nippon Kogaku KK (Nikon) 21mm f4 Nikkor-O ultrawideangle lens  The rear section of elongated lens tube of a Nippon Kogaku KK (Nikon) 21mm f4 Nikkor-O ultrawideangle lens
Unlike the F-mount equivalent, the rangefinder version has the rear lens tube in circular form with the edge not being shaped. See the F-mount version, it was different in this area.

Credit: Images courtesy of Mr. Peter Coeln from LEICA Shop®, Austria who also operates a popular Westlicht Auction House. Image Copyright © 2008. All rights reserved. Please respect the visual property of the contributing photographer.

We have discussed quite a few variations of the comparing German Zeiss and Schneider versions with a similar Biogon optical design earlier. Basically the earlier introduction was simply offered you with a glimpse of what the German was offering during those days. So, they were just used as a comparison with the Nikon's version here in this site. The adoption of the similar German Biogon design by Nikon for their first ultrawide lens in RF format which has resulted almost the same lens configuration. Physically, it shares a same elongated lens assembly where the rear section of the lens is pushed so far into the camera body that almost reaches the film plane (approx. 7mm away from the film plane). The extended rear section of the lens tube essentially making the lens only suitable for the rangefinder Nikon body. When used the F-mount counterpart onto a Nikon reflex SLR, it requires the reflex mirror to raise in order for the lens to be mounted onto the camera. Fortunately, until the first compact Ai-body Nikon FM (1977) was released, all prevailing Nikon SLR models introduced during the pre-FM period, from the single digit F camera models to the second tier Nikkormat/Nikomat were designed with a mechanical Mirror Lock-Up feature. So, other than providing absolute zero mirror bounce movement in application such as high magnification to super telephotography, mirror lock up were also one of the key function in any Nikon those days to use some of the special lenses. For an example, early Fisheye-Nikkor models such as Fisheye-Nikkor 7.5mm f/5.6(1966), Fisheye-Nikkor 8mm f/8.0 (1962), 10mm OP-Nikkor (1968) and even the amazing 6mm f/5.6 Fisheye-Nikkor (1969) would require the Mirror-Lock-Up in order to mount the lenses. It was not known whether any of the Fisheye lenses designed for the F-mount Nikon can be used directly onto the S-mount RF bodies but I do know there are accessory modified as F-S adapter for this purpose.

The 2.1cm Nikkor-O ultrawide lens basically uses a light alloy construction. Overall, the lens resembles many of the rigid and tough physical lens structure used on many of the early Nikkor F-mount lenses. The lens mounting ring and the ring at the far end was chrome. The focusing ring with distance scales engraved is made of hard plastic. But the aperture ring is located at the far end near the filter thread. As the nature of the long rear lens tube, regardless using the lens on a reflex or rangefinder Nikon, both the S or F-mount models do not have a practical focusing method. So, depth of field control via estimation of distance is the only way for focusing. However, as the immensely wide depth of field generates by its optical nature makes this problematic issue .

S-mount of the Nikkor RF 2.1cm f/4.0 (21mm f/4.0) by Nikon S-Magazine Nikon 2.1 cm f/4 F-mount lens by Rokas Photo & Video @EBAY.com
Comparing the physical appearance of the two 2.1cm f/4.0 Nikkor lens in F and S-mount.

Credit: Image of the F-mount version of the 2.1cm f/4 RF-Nikkor lens shown at the right hand side courtesy of Rokas Photo & Video @ EBAY®. Image(s) copyright © 2008. All rights reserved. Please respect the visual property of the contributing photographer.

Credit: Picture of the Nikkor 2.1cm f/4 at far left was scanned and retouched from Nikon RF Mazagine. Photographer: ®


The side vertical view of the elongated lens tube of the Nikkor-O Reflex F-mount 2.1cm f/4.0 (21mm f/4.0) by  Rokas Photo & Video Lens made in Japan marking at the Nikkor-O Reflex F-mount 2.1cm f/4.0 (21mm f/4.0) by  Rokas Photo & Video
Shown is the F-mount version. Illustrating the front and rear section of the metal lens tube. The aperture ring for the S-Mount version is located at the front.

Credit: Images courtesy of Rokas Photo & Video @ EBAY®. Image(s) copyright © 2008. All rights reserved. Please respect the visual property of the contributing photographer.

F-mount Nikkor-O 2.1cm f/4.0 mounted onto a Nikon F SLR camera by Matthew Lin
Illustration of Nikon's mirror lock up mechanism /  theory in a SLR camera with certain old Nikkor lenses

NOTE:- The illustration above with the protruding rear section of the lens probably explained why the lens requires the mirror to be raised on the reflex Nikon bodies. This leaves Nikon camera without any visual guide for picture composing and thus a secondary accessory finder is required to aid composition. The S-Mount Nikon has no reflex mirror, but due to its extensive wide picture coverage where it is impossible to include a bright-line frame inside the viewfinder for any existing Nikon RF models. Hence, the use of the accessory finder is required. In fact, this is one of the main reason why Nikon had produced a large variety of finders for the rangefinder Nikon. The finder for the 2.1cm ultra-wideangle lens is exclusively for the lens. None of the other models such as Variframe / Vafifocal or Sports Finders are usable to match the extensive picture angle.
Credit: Image courtesy of Matthew Lin®. Matthew also maintains an excellent Nikon/Nikkor personal site where you can access to some oldies. Images copyright 2008. All rights reserved. Please respect the visual property of the contributing photographer.

The Optical Finder can be an integrated component with the RF Nikkor 2.1cm lens, First, it offers as a viewing/composition accessory. As mentioned earlier, none of the Nikon RF has any built-in bright-line frame for ultrawideangle. Focusing in this manner is only via distance estimation couples with depth of field usage. As extracted from the Nikkor sales-leaflet where it suggested this ".. accurate focusing will not be necessary in using the 21mm f/4.0 because of extremely deep depth of field...". Well, in relation to metering, as all early Nikon RF models prior to Nikon SP had a rotating shutter speed dial which doesn't permit the Nikon's own designed Exposure Meter to couple onto the camera body. So, most photographers uses incident light meter or the old trusty way of Sunny 16 rule which actually depends a lot on experience for such rough exposure / metering control.

The dedicated finder for Nikkor-O 21mm f/4.0 The exclusively designed accessory  finder for Nikkor-O 21mm f/4.0 - rear section view The dedicated finder for Nikkor-O 21mm f/4.0
Credit: Images courtesy of Mr. Peter Coeln from LEICA Shop®, Austria who also operates a popular Westlicht Auction House. Image Copyright © 2008. All rights reserved. Please respect the visual property of the contributing photographer.
<<<--- Shown is a 2.1cm companion optical finder which mainly serves as a viewing aid for the RF Nikon. It has a rather straight forward optical design of 5 elements. It has a rectangular shape at the front that cased in a chrome/metal frame (as well as the flash foot at the base). The rear section is black plastic with a tiny viewfinder eyepiece. The top portion has an embossed old Nikon KK logo as well as a number "2.1". Not sure if the eyepiece accept any correction lenses. The special finder is believed to have been exclusively delivered with the 2.1mm lens as standard accessory and it is not available via separate order.

Also Check
Zeiss Finder 430 for Zeiss Biogon f/4.5/21mm

It was known many of the accessories such as Optical Finder are sometimes numbered. However, the 2.1cm dedicated finder was believed to have been ALL numbered (serialized numbering). Most publications were suggesting known production number for this finder could be ranging from 600100 to 600402. Partly, this was one of the reason why Guru collector such as R. Rotoloni felt the actual number of this rare 2.1mm Nikkor ultra-wide may has produced higher than the recorded number of 300 units as evidenced by the higher serial number generated with the matching dedicated finder. Although the finder can be regarded as almost identical to that of the F-mount version, but I don't think they are interchangeable as both camera types used a different mounting shoe (reflex Nikon F, F2 and Nikon F3 - where the big F/Nikon F2 and even the 1980's Nikon F3) use a very different side-mounting accessory shoe design). The Nikkormat, which has a center-positioned accessory shoe, may require to attach the accessory shoe on the viewfinder window.


Opticl construction for the Optical Finder for 2.1cm f/4.0 Accessory finder for Nikon ultrawideangle lens The mounting foot of F-Miunt and S-mount 21mm f/4.0
Basically, the RF Finder has a simple flat-base mounting foot while the reflex F-mount version has a slightly different hook-type base design. I am not sure if Nikon had designed another accessory in order to enable the two interchangeable.
NOTE:- the reflex version finder have either a chrome or black based flash foot. Far left: A simple 5 elements optical structure for the Finder.

Front section view of the old Nikkor-O 1
It is acceptable that Nikon had (or at least trying to) "replicated" the German Biogon design in their own version of the 2.1cm Nikkor. However, one way of another, the renown Nikon optical designer Mr.WAKIMOTO, Zenji ( who also designed the famed Micro-Nikkor and ultra-Micro-Nikkor series of fine optic (the latter was used as a high precision optical lens for inspection of IC (integrated Circuit) during fabrication/production) had did his part by modified it in a new configuration slightly different. For those who may be interested in the detail, you may | CLICK HERE | for an article written by Mr. SATO, Haruo which was hosted in Nikon Japan site. One marked improvement made was the eventual slight increase of the maximum lens speed from the German version. Although both the S-Mount and F-mount reflex Nikon do not interpret the lens speed into brighter viewing through the lens as the rangefinder is not viewing TTL but still it was slightly different from the original Biogon design. It was not known if this was just to avoid infringing the German copyright or solely from an optically designing aspect to make it better as Nikon claimed the revised design has improved considerably on containing distortion. Well, it could also be just to serve marketing objective to term the Nikkor lens as "the fastest 21mm in the market..than the German offering (during that period)".

Credit: Picture of the Nikkor 2.1cm f/4 at was scanned and retouched from Nikon RF Mazagine. Photographer: ®

Despite these, the Nikkor-O 1:4 f=2.1cm ultrawideangle lens does used/shared an almost similar 8 elements in 4 group optical structure, with the 2 inner three-element groups sandwiching the iris (that makes it 8 elements in 6 groups). Mr. R. Rotoloni, author of the Illustrated history of Nikon rangefinder believes certain rare earth glass and special coating was used in this lens but only known to Nikon if this guess was correct. Although some of the enthusiasts think the S-mount version of the Nikkor 21mm f/4.0 was single layer coated but there are Nikon fans who hold a strong belief that the late F-mount models could had been treated with multi-layers lens coating. In a typical S-mount lens, the lens reflects a slightly amber tint at the exposed front/rear lens element.

The exposed lens element at the rear section of the 21mm f/4.0 Nikkor-O The exposed lens element at the rear section of the S-MOUNT VERSION 21mm f/4.0 Nikkor-O
Comparing both the rear end section of the F-mount (LEFT) and S-mount (RIGHT) 2.1cm f/4.0.
Credit: Image of the rear lens element of the elongated back portion of the F-mount version of the 2.1cm f/4 Nikkor lens shown at the left courtesy of ROKAS Photo & Video @ EBAY®. Image(s) copyright © 2008. All rights reserved. The picture of the S-mount version courtesy of Mr. Kelvin LI from his popular gokelvincameras @ Ebay Store® which retails for many hard-to-find Nikon, canon, Contax oldies. Image Copyright © 2008. All rights reserved. Please respect the visual property of the contributing photographer.

S-mount 21mm f/4 from NikonJP.jpg

Optical construction / diagram of the Nikkor-O 2.1cm f/4.0

Optical design used in the Nikkor-O 1:4 f=2.1cm

German Biogon 21mm f/4.5 lens

Optical struction/construction of the German Biogon 21mm f/4.5 lens

Optical design of the German BIOGON 21mm f/4.5

| LINK for series of view |

The picture angle of the Nikkor-O ultrawide generates approx. 92 degrees picture coverage. I have to admit it was a generous feat for the RF Nikon. The aperture control provides variation of aperture ranges from f/4.0, f/5.6. f/8.0, f/11 and only stopped down to a minimum aperture of f/16.


Physical contruction of the F-mount 2.1cm f/4.0

optical contruction of the F-mount 2.1cm f/4.0Comparing the above with the physical / optical measurement for the 52mm filter thread F-mount version. The 34.5mm S-mount model could be slightly smaller.

LINK to Carl Zeiss Biogon 21mm f/4.5 page to show Optical Diaphragm / Internal Construction
cross-check Carl Zeiss Biogon 21mm f/4.5 (1954)

Due to its optical nature of an ultra-wdeangle lens, the f/16 can be considered very forgiving and should be more than adequate to generate immensely extensive depth of field. Probably one of the reason the distance between each stop on the DOF scales are quite far apart so as to enable "classic" means of depth of field control to aid focusing.
Nippon Kogaku KK (Nikon) 21mm f4 Nikkor-O ultrawideangle lens  with dedicated finder 2.1cm
The closest focusing distance of the lens closes down to approx. 91cm (3 ft). It weighs approx. 127.5g (4.5oz). The filter attachment size for the S-Mount version has a smaller 43mm filter size as compare to the F-mount's 52mm. The Optical Finder was supplied along with the lens as a standard accessory. Other optional accessories include screw-in lens hood (hard to locate a picture and thus, no illustration is provided here). Further, due to the extraordinary long extension of the rear lens tube, Nikon has designed quite an innovative rear lens cap which is exclusively for the lens where it has a slot to house the finder at inverse position. Shown below is how a F-mount version of the 21mm ultrawide with the finder attached onto the bottom section of the special rear cap. * NOTE: the older series of Fisheye-Nikkor 7.5mm. 6mm f/5.6 and 8mm f/8.0 lenses also had such similar lens cap type.


Credit
: Images courtesy of Mr. Peter Coeln from LEICA Shop®, Austria who also operates a popular Westlicht Auction House. Image Copyright © 2008. All rights reserved. Please respect the visual property of the contributing photographer.
How the legend evolved itself after from here:- I think it is appropriate to address what has happened after this. In November, 1967 Nikon eventually introduced a F-mount reflex version with a different retrofocus design as well as slightly wider picture angle at 20mm focal length which DOES NOT REQUIRED MIRROR LOCK-UP anymore and hence permits direct TTL viewing / metering with any compatible* reflex Nikon. The "new" 20mm ultrawideangle lens came with a slightly wider aperture / picture angle of f/3.5 / 94° (2.1cm f/4.0 Nikkor-O offers 92°). The MF Non-Ai Nikkor-UD Auto 1:3.5 f=20mm (Nikkor 20mm f/3.5UD) was strangely being reverted / followed by a dimmer maximum aperture version which was has a completely revised optical design in 1974, the said MF Nikkor 20mm f/4.0 was also one of the ultra-wideangle Nikkor lens appeared during the Pre-Ai era. Then in 1979, the 20mm lens was being updated/revised again by Nikon as a Ai-version MF Nikkor 20mm f/3.5. It was interesting to note that the Ai lens has reverted back to a faster f/3.5 maximum aperture. Although it was widely accepted the first 20mm that offered a fast f/2.8 maximum aperture was the 1984's Classic (Ai's Native Nikkor 20mm f/2.8s); but there are reference such as Peter Btaczko, author of the Nikon handbook who addressed a prototype was being shown in Photokina 1976. The famed Nikkor 20mm f/2.8s was being replicated in an autofocus outfit in 1989 as an AF Nikkor 20mm f/2.8S to compliment users of the autofocus Nikon bodies. The followed-up model was the current popular AF Nikkor 20mm f/2.8D introduced in March, 1994, where it has a distance chip embedded within to enable capable AF Nikon models to take advantage of the Nikon 3D Matrix Metering for both ambient and TTL flash. Despite Nikon had announced discontinuation of many manual focus / autofocus Nikkor lenses back in 2006 (esp. with fixed focal length optic), but it is still available in many retail outlets; so, I would rather still term it remains as the current model as at 03.2008.

* It is IMPORTANT to note that any Non Ai Nikkor requires to update as Ai for metering to work effectively on an Ai Nikon SLR model. Older Nikkor lenses may present certain restriction issues in the full scale metering and/or exposure control modes capabilities with newer series of AF bodies. Certain entry level digital Nikon SLRs does not even encouraged use of old or modified Nikkor at all. I don't have any info relating to possible availability/combination of a F-S or S-F mount adapter(s). If any of you have such experience and/or information, I am more than happy to include them in this site.

The dedicated rear lens cap with slot to house the Accesssory finder for the Nikkor-O 21mm f/4.0 (2.1cm f/4).
Basic Technical Specification for Nikkor-O 1:4 f=2.1cm wideangle lens:-

Lens Mount
: Nikon S-mount for RF models
Focal Length: 21mm (2.1cm)
Picture Angle: 92
°
Maximum / Minimum Aperture: f/4.0 / f/16
Optical Construction: 8 elements in 4 groups
Minimum Focusing Distance: 0.9m (3 ft) ~ OO (marked values:
OO, 10, 5, 3,2, 1.5, 1.2 & 0.9m)
Filter Attachment Size: S-mount:- 43mm / F mount version: 52mm (P=0.75)
Dimension: approx. 55.8 mm dia. x 53.5 mm long (overall); F-mount: approx. 60mm x 56mm
Weight (body only): approx. 127.5g (4.5oz); F mount: 135g
Standard Accessories: Optical Finder (2.1cm model); Rear lens cap with finder housing slot. Front Snap-On type. Optional: Screw-in type Lens hood, optical filters etc. F-S/S-F mount adapters: no info.

Other Information
: Single Coated with manual diaphragm.Year introduced: May, 1959; Discontinued: Possibly around June, 1960. F-mount version has a larger 52mm filer size dimension and weighs heavier at 210g (4.8oz). The Accessory Finder comes with either black or chrome/metal mounting foot. Serial Numbering References:- S-Mount starts from 621000 ~ 621330. F-mount model could had been started from 220101 (S/N 225001 onwards usable on Nikkormat). Ref: Peter Braczko's Nikon Handbook.
Credit: Image of the special rear lens cap courtesy of Matthew Lin®. Matthew also maintains an excellent Nikon/Nikkor personal site where you can access to some oldies. Images copyright 2008. All rights reserved. Please respect the visual property of the contributing photographer.

W-Nikkor-O 1:4 f=2.1cm | W-Nikkor.C 1:4 f=2.5cm | W-Nikkor.C 1:3.5 f= 2.8cm | W-Nikkor.C 3.5cm lens Group (3.5/2.5/1.8) | Stereo-Nikkor 1:3.5 f=3.5cm | 5cm (50mm) lens group | RF Micro-Nikkor 1:3.5 f=5cm | Nikkor-P.C 1:2 f=8.5cm lens group / Nikkor-S.C 1:1.5 f=8.5cm lens group | Nikkor-P.C 1:2.5 f=10.5cm lens group / Nikkor-T 1:4 f=10.5cm | Nikkor-Q.C 13.5cm lens group: 135/4, 135/3.5 Early / Last Version, 135/4 Bellow lens | Nikkor-H 1:2.5 f=18cm | Nikkor-Q 1:4 f=25cm | Nikkor-T 1:4.5 f=35cm | Nikkor-T.C 1:5 f=50cm | Reflex-Nikkor 100cm f/6.3

System Accessories for Nikon Rangefinder cameras
Optical Finders (4 parts):-
Fixed Focal length Finders (index page): 2.1cm, 2.5cm, 2.8cm, 3.5cm, 35cm Stereo, 5cm, 8.5cm, 10.5cm, 13.5cm | Variframe / Varifocal / Sport-frames | Nikon Reflex Housing

Nikon S36/S72/S250 Motor Drives / S36 Manual | light meters | Nikon RF Flash/Speedlights | Close-up photography / Repro Copy Outfit / Nikon Bellow Focusing Device (in progress) | Cases/Compartments | Lens & body caps, Lens Hoods/shades, Original Price Lists | packaging/boxes

Instruction Manuals

Related info:- Main index page for Leica/Leitz | Contax/Carl Zeiss | Seiki Kogaku (Canon)


 
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  Contax and Nikon Rangefinder Bayonet Mount Lenses  +   [Film Tech/Lens]   |  2012.10.18 14:08

 

Contax and Nikon Rangefinder Bayonet Mount Lenses.docx

위 첨부파일은 아래 내용을 저장한 워드파일

Contax and Nikon Rangefinder Bayonet Mount Lenses

When I saw the bright Nikon S2 in a used camera store in Osaka Japan in the summer of 2003, I knew it had to be mine. The Nikon is a classic camera of the late 1950s that uses the Nikon 'S' mount, a bayonet mount that is similar to the Contax 'C' rangefinder mount used in classic Contax rangefinders of the 1930s-1960s (not the current Contax G range).

Later, I found a mint condition Nikon S3 with mint 105mm f/2.5 that also had to be mine, and bought it.

The Nikon mount is almost identical to the Contax mount. Lenses from both systems will mount on each other, but because Nikon used Leica's standard of 51.6mm focal length for their standard lens, rather than the 52.3 of Contax's system, there is a very slight incompatibility between the Nikon and Contax system. Infinity is the same on both, but there is a 7° maximum difference in close focusing between the two.

For focusing at infinity or when using wide-angle lenses, this slight difference is enveloped within the depth-of-field of the lens. But when using large aperture normals (50mm f/1.4) or long lenses (>75mm), there will be a focusing disparity at short distances.

Kiev and Contax: More information about the Kiev series of Contax descendants is on my Kiev 4a page. Suffice it to say here that Former Soviet Union (FSU) lenses that use the Kiev/Contax mount are totally compatible with the Contax system. And you can use FSU Kiev/Contax wide-angle lenses on Nikons without a problem although the long lenses will run into the same Contax/Nikon incompatibility. Here is my Nikon S2 pictured with the excellent Jupiter-12 35mm f/2.8 clone of the Zeiss Biogon (along with its normal 50mm lens inverted).

Cosina-Voigtlander: Cosina of Japan has recently announced the first new production lenses for the Nikon 'S' and Contax 'C' mount for over three decades. The new wide angles in particular use aspheric surfaces and look to be excellent. I'm really excited about this! They've also produced Bessa R2S and R2C cameras, which are compatible with the Nikon and Contax rangefinder mounts, respectively.


Wide Angle Lenses

Former Soviet Union Lenses:

Jupiter-12 35mm f/2.8: The Jupiter-12 is a copy of the Zeiss Biogon, a very famous 35mm f/2.8 design. Because it isn't retrofocus, the rear element almost touches the focal plane curtains of Nikons/Contaxes. The rear element actually hits the double metal shutters of the Bessa R2S/C and cannot be used with those models. But... with all those caveats... if you have a camera that works with the Jupiter-12, then it's a stellar lens. The non-retrofocus design means that there is very low distortion. Overally, very, very high quality. It's a bit of a pain storing the lens when it's off the camera because the rear element is so vulnerable. Don't buy it unless it comes with the rear lens cap especially designed for it.

Technical Details - Wide Angle Lenses (italics = I wish I had or I sold [and regret])

Manufacturer
Nikon
Arsenal
Zeiss
Lens
35mm f/1.8 W-Nikkor

35mm f/2.5 W-Nikkor

35mm f/2.8 Jupiter-12 35mm f/2.8 Biogon
Serial#
900146x
Place of Manufacture
Japan
USSR
Date of Manufacture
1956-6x

1952-61

?

1952-61

Lens Construction
7 elements in 5 groups (modified Gauss?; Xenotar type) 6 elements in 4 groups (Gauss type) 6 elements in 4 groups
Resolution: 34/12
x elements in x groups (Gauss type)
Lens Mount

Nikon RF Bayonet Mount

Contax RF Bayonet Mount
Focusing range

0.9 meter - infinity
63° Angle of View (AoV)

xx meter - infinity
Right focusing (infinity at right)
62° Angle of View (AOV)

0.9 meter - infinity
Left focusing (infinity at Left)
62° Angle of View (AoV)

xx meter - infinity
Right focusing (infinity at right)
63° Angle of View (AOV)

Apertures

f/1.8, f/2.0 ~ f/22 (x stop steps)

f/2.5, f/2.8 ~ f/22 (x stop steps)

f/2.8 ~ f/22 (1 stop steps)

f/2.5, f/2.8 ~ f/22 (x stop steps)

Filter Mount

Filter: 43mm threaded
Lens cap: 48mm push on
(Nikon Mount)

Filter: 43mm threaded
Hood: 43mm spring

Filter: 40.5mm x 0.5 threaded
Lens cap: xxmm push on

Filter: xxmm threaded
Hood: xxmm spring

Body Construction
Light alloy

Originally chrome plated brass.
Change to light alloy after 1958

Aluminum

Originally chrome plated brass.
Change to light alloy after 1958

Dimensions and weight

55.8mm D. x 39.5 mm L
160g
(Nikon mount)

55.8 mm dia. x 34.8 mm
110 g (post-1958 model)

60 mm D x 52 mm H
115g

Retail price
¥39,500 (1958)
¥33,600 (1959)
¥27,500 (1961)
¥27,000 (1962)
(Nikon Mount)
¥27,500 (1958)
¥22,000 (1959)
¥18,000 (1961)
Note: Using the text or images on this site in an ebay auction without permission is a violation of your ebay Terms of Service. I will report you to ebay if I discover such a violation taking place. This may result in your account being cancelled. I also reserve the right to file claim for civil penalties.


Standard and Long Lenses

The standard Nikkor 5cm (50mm) f/1.4 lens on the Nikon 'S' rangefinders is renowned for its sharpness and clarity. It had a very long production life, basically existing from the first Nikon S to the last Nikon S4. During its production, it went from chromed brass to black painted aluminum, as seen on the Nikon S3 to the right. The optical formula remained the same. It also lost the 'C' in Nikkor-S.C. which indicated coating. Nikon decided that since lenses from all manufacturers were being coated in the post-War period there was no reason to advertise it anymore.

Technical Details - Standard and Long Lenses

Lens
Nikkor-S-C. 5 cm f/1.4 Nikkor-S 5cm f/1.4
Manufacturer
Nippon Kogaku
Place of Manufacture
Japan
Date of Manufacture
1953-
Serial #32200~37400 or so (Rottolini)

Serial #37400~417862 or so (Rottolini)

Lens Construction
7 elements in 3 groups (all single coated)
Lens Mount

Nikon RF mount (bayonet)

Focusing range

1.0m - infinity (3 feet - infinity)
(left focusing - infinity on left)

Apertures

f/1.4~ f/16 (1 stop steps)

Filter Mount

43mm screw-in

Dimensions and weight

Chromed brass

145g (5.1oz)

Black painted aluminum

133g (4.7oz)

Retail price
$169.50 in 1953 ¥
Note: Using the text or images on this site in an ebay auction without permission is a violation of your ebay Terms of Service. I will report you to ebay if I discover such a violation taking place. This may result in your account being cancelled. I also reserve the right to file claim for civil penalties.

Nikkor-P 10.5cm f/2.5

The Nikkor-P 10.5cm (105mm) f/2.5 lens is one of the lenses that won Nikon over in the United States. It was bitingly sharp with excellent resolution. Photojournalists were flocking to the Nikon system. This lens has a long and hallowed life. After its incarnation as a Nikon Rangefinder Lens, it was reborn as a Nikon 'F' mount SLR lens.

I bought my 105mm in mint condition with case and caps as part of a larger lot that included my Nikon S3. It was really quite a coup since these lenses are getting rare, and the caps and hoods for them are getting even rarer.

Lens
Nikkor-P 10.5 cm f/2.5 135mm f/3.5 Nikkor Q-C
Manufacturer
Nippon Kogaku
Place of Manufacture
Japan
Date of Manufacture
1953-
22,000 produced
My unit (serial #922xxx) produced in last block
1950-
1953-
1956-
Lens Construction
5 elements in 3 groups (all single coated) 4 elements in 3 groups
Lens Mount

Nikon RF mount (bayonet)

Focusing range

1.3m - infinity (4 feet - infinity)
(left focusing - infinity on left)

1.5 meter (5') - infinity
18° Angle of View (AoV)
Apertures

f/2.5, f/2.8 ~ f/32 (1 stop steps)

1950: f/3.5 ~ f/16
1953: f/3.5 ~ f/32
1956: f/3.5 ~ f/32
Filter Mount

52mm screw-in (Series VII)

Filter: 43mm threaded

Dimensions and weight
525g (18.5 oz) 1950: 510g
1953: 475g
1956: 397g
Retail price
$152.50 ¥
Note: Using the text or images on this site in an ebay auction without permission is a violation of your ebay Terms of Service. I will report you to ebay if I discover such a violation taking place. This may result in your account being cancelled. I also reserve the right to file claim for civil penalties.

Manufacturer
Arsenal
Arsenal
Lens

5cm f/2 "Jupiter 8M"
(although it's labelled 5cm, the actual focal length is 52mm)

85mm f/2 "Jupiter-9"
Place of Manufacture
USSR USSR
Serial #
Date of Manufacture
1958~
Lens Construction
Zeiss Sonnar clone
5 elements in 3 groups
Zeiss Sonnar clone
7 elements in 3 groups
Lens Mount
Kiev/Contax RF Bayonet Mount
Focusing range

0.9 meter - infinity
Left focusing (infinity at left)
45° Angle of View (AOV)

1.15 meter - infinity
Left focusing (infinity at left)
xx ° Angle of View (AOV)

Apertures

f/2.0 ~ f/22 (1 stop click stops)
9 aperture blades

f/2.0 ~ f/22 (xx click stops)
15 aperture blades

Filter Mount


Filter: 40.5mm threaded

Filter: 49mm threaded

Body Construction
Dimensions and weight
49mm D x 35 mm H
130g
60mm D x 65 mm H
335g
Retail price
$30-60 on eBay (2003)
Note: Using the text or images on this site in an ebay auction without permission is a violation of your ebay Terms of Service. I will report you to ebay if I discover such a violation taking place. This may result in your account being cancelled. I also reserve the right to file claim for civil penalties.


Lens Collection Martrix

Leica M39 Leica M Pentax M42 Nikon RF Nikon F Canon FD Canon EF
15 15 f/4.5
17 17 f/4
20 20 f/2.8
24 24 f/2.8 24 f/2.8 24 f/2.8
25 25 f/4
28 28 f/2.8 28 f/2.8
35 35 f/2
35 35 f/2.8 35 f/2.8 35 f/2.8
40 40 f/2
45 45 f/2.8
50 50 f/1.4 50 f/1.4 50 f/1.4 50 f/1.4 50 f/1.4
50 50 f/1.5 50 f/1.8
50 50 f/2
50 50 f/3.5
52 52 f/2
58 58 f/1.4
85 85 f/2
90 90 f/4
100 100 f/2.8
100 100 f/4
100 100 f/4
105 105 f/2.5 105 f/2.8
135 135 f/3.5 135 f/3.5 135 f/3.5
135 135 f/4


 
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  Distagon, Tessar, Planar, Sonnar 간략특징  +   [Film Tech/Lens]   |  2012.10.06 14:00

Distagon, Tessar, Planar, Sonnar등은 렌즈의 구성과 광학적 특징을 가름하는 것인데
Distagon은 주변부 광량 저하현상이 적은 특징을 가지고 Distagon에 F가 붙으면 Fisheye를 말합니다.
Tessar는 4군의 간단한 구조를 가지는 단촛점렌즈에 고기능 경량화를 실현합니다.
Planar는 각종 수차와 왜곡을 거의 완벽하게 제거하고 대구경의 밝은 렌즈의 설계에 사용되며
Sonnar는 준망원에서 망원까지의 영역을 담당하는 렌즈 설계로 사용됩니다


 
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